About Chief Minister
According to the Indian Constitution, the elected head of the council of ministers in a state is the Chief Minister (CM). Although, the Governor is the official 'head of the state', yet it is the Chief Minister who is vested with the 'de facto' executive powers.
Chief Minister is the real head of a state, unlike the Governor, who is the ceremonial head. Since India has adopted the Westminster Model of constitutional democracy, it is the CM who oversees the day-to-day functioning of the state government.
According to the Indian Constitution, in the everyday administration, the CM is assisted by the council of ministers, which consists of cabinet ministers, deputy ministers and others. The CM is appointed by and sworn in by the Governor.
Power and Authority of Chief MinisterThe powers and functions enjoyed by the Chief Minister are similar to those of the Prime Minister of India, within a restricted jurisdiction of a state. Some of these are mentioned below:
- The CM holds the executive powers of state government. He/she has the power to form his council of ministers, choosing members of his party for particular ministries within the working of the state. The core council of ministers is called the Cabinet, members of which are decided by the Chief Minister. The various departments are allotted to various ministers by the CM. Ministers are removed from their portfolios if the CM does not like his/her performance.
- The CM is the link between the Governor and the council of ministers. He is required to communicate to the Governor the workings of the various wings of the government. Similarly, the advice and suggestions of the Governor are communicated to the council of ministers by the CM.
- The CM has a pivotal role in the financial matters of a state, including the budget, basic infrastructural and developmental priorities of the state, financial planning and economic growth of the state and others.
- The Chief Minister is the chief spokesperson of the government of a state. With the help of media, the CM communicates all policies and decisions to the people of the state. The CM holds regular or periodic press conferences wherein he/she makes the citizens of a state aware of the functioning of the government.
Salary of Chief MinisterThe salary of Chief Minister of a state in India, like that of the prime minister of the country, is accompanied by a number of other allowances, besides the basic pay, such as constituency allowances, sumptuary allowances ( tax free) and daily allowances.
The salary of the CM is decided by the respective state legislatures in the country, as per Article 164 of the Indian Constitution. Thus it varies from one state to another.
Facilities availed by the Chief MinisterThe facilities given to the Chief Minister of a state can include medical facilities, residential facilities, reimbursement of electricity and phone charges, traveling facilities and many more. The amount allotted for each of these facilities to the Chief Minister varies from one state to another, as these are specifically detailed in the respective state legislatures of the country.
- Medical facilities: In accordance with the Medical Attendance Rules, the Chief Minister is entitled to avail free medical treatment, reimbursement and free accommodation in all hospitals run by the Government and other referral hospitals declared by the government.
- Residence facilities:The Chief Minister is entitled to a rent-free and well furnished residence. The amount, however, can vary in different states. In case, the Chief Minister decides to stay in his or her own house, the value of the house rental is paid to the Chief Minister.
- Reimbursement of electricity and phone charges:The Chief Minister is entitled to a fixed amount of money as reimbursement against phone call charges made in a month. A fixed quantity of electricity units are allotted free of cost to the Chief Minister, for the monthly consumption of electricity.
- Travelling facilities: The Chief Minister is allotted a fixed amount of money for his or her traveling expenses within the jurisdiction of the country, in a year. This amount also varies, as outlined in Article 164 of the Indian Constitution. The Chief Minister’s family members are also entitled to a certain amount for free traveling in a year.
Selection Process of Chief MinisterThe appointing authority is the governor, who suggests a vote of confidence procedurally in the state legislature, to establish the selection of the Chief Minister.
According to the Westminster model of parliamentary system that India follows, the Chief Minister is not elected directly by the people of a state. The people only elect particular representatives from various constituencies in a state, as members of the state legislature or the Vidhan Sabha (MLAs). These representatives, especially from the majority party which forms the government, then choose the Chief Minister from among them. The tenure of the Chief Minister is for a period of five years, when the state legislative assembly is dissolved and fresh elections are held. However, the tenure of the Chief Minister can be terminated by the governor before the period of five years, when the majority party loses the confidence vote in the state legislative assembly.
Term of Office and Retirement AgeThe tenure of CM is for five years, when the state legislative assembly is dissolved and fresh elections are held in the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly). However, the tenure of the Chief Minister can be terminated by the governor before the period of five years, when the majority party/alliance loses the confidence vote in the state legislative assembly. The Chief Minister can also resign from his or her post before the completion of the term.
There is no age for the retirement of the Chief Minister. Although, the minimum age for becoming the Chief Minister is 25 years, there is no upper age limit till when he or she can serve the post of a Chief Minister.
Pension of Chief MinisterAccording to the Constitution of India, the Chief Minister of a state is entitled to a certain amount of pension after his or her retirement. However, the amount varies in the respective state legislatures. In the case of death of the Chief Minister, his or her spouse is entitled to pension too.
List of Chief Ministers of Indian States
|S.No.||State||Chief Ministers||Took Office||Party|
|1||Andhra Pradesh||N.Chandrababu Naidu||8 Jun 2014||Telugu Desam Party|
|2||Arunachal Pradesh||Kalikho Pul||Feb 20, 2016||Indian National Congress|
|3||Assam||Tarun Kumar Gogoi||17 May 2001||Indian National Congress|
|4||Bihar||Nitish Kumar||20 Nov 2015||Janata Dal (United)|
|5||Chhattisgarh||Raman Singh||7 Dec 2003||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|6||Delhi||Arvind Kejriwal||14 Feb 2015||Aam Aadmi Party|
|7||Goa||Laxmikant Parsekar||8 Nov 2014||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|8||Gujarat||Anandiben Patel||22 May 2014||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|9||Haryana||Manohar Lal Khattar||26 Oct 2014||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|10||Himachal Pradesh||Virbhadra Singh||25 Dec 2012||Indian National Congress|
|11||Jammu and Kashmir||Mufti Mohammad Sayeed||1 Mar 2015||PDP, BJP|
|12||Jharkhand||Raghubar Das||28 Dec 2014||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|13||Karnataka||Siddaramaiah||13 May 2013||Indian National Congress|
|14||Kerala||Oommen Chandy||18 May 2011||Indian National Congress|
|15||Madhya Pradesh||Shivraj Singh Chauhan||29 Nov 2005||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|16||Maharashtra||Devendra Fadnavis||31 Oct 2014||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|17||Manipur||Okram Ibobi Singh||2 Mar 2002||Indian National Congress|
|18||Meghalaya||Mukul Sangma||20 Apr 2010||Indian National Congress|
|19||Mizoram||Pu Lalthanhawla||7 Dec 2008||Indian National Congress|
|20||Nagaland||T R Zeliang||24 May 2014||Nagaland People's Front|
|21||Odisha||Naveen Patnaik||5 Mar 2000||Biju Janata Dal|
|22||Puducherry||N. Rangaswamy||17 May 2011||All India N.R. Congress|
|23||Punjab||Parkash Singh Badal||1 Mar 2007||Shiromani Akali Dal|
|24||Rajasthan||Vasundhara Raje||13 Dec 2013||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|25||Sikkim||Pawan Kumar Chamling||12 Dec 1994||Sikkim Democratic Front|
|26||Tamil Nadu||J. Jayalalithaa||23 May 2015||All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam|
|27||Telangana||K Chandrasekhar Rao||2 Jun 2014||Telangana Rashtriya Samiti (TRS)|
|28||Tripura||Manik Sarkar||11 Mar 1998||Communist Party of India (Marxist)|
|29||Uttar Pradesh||Akhilesh Yadav||15 Mar 2012||Samajwadi Party|
|30||Uttarakhand||Harish Rawat||1 Feb 2014||Indian National Congress|
|31||West Bengal||Mamata Banerjee||20 May 2011||All India Trinamool Congress|
Interesting Facts about Chief Ministers
- The first woman Chief Minister in the history of independent India was Sucheta Kriplani of the Indian National Congress (INC). She served the post of the CM of Uttar Pradesh from 1963 to 1967. Closely following her was Nandini Satpathy who governed Odisha as the CM from 1972 to 1976.
- The first Dalit Chief Minister of any Indian state was Mayawati of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Mayawati also had a significant record of being one of the longest-serving Chief Ministers of UP, being in office for a total of 2554 days.
- Jyoti Basu of the CPI (M) is the longest-serving Chief Minister of any state in India. He remained the CM of West Bengal from 1977 to 2000, being in power for 8539 days. It was under his regime that the historic land reform movement 'Operation Barga' was carried out throughout rural West Bengal, a model soon replicated in other parts of the country.
- Nadendla Bhaskara Rao has served the shortest-term as a Chief Minister. He remained the CM of Andhra Pradesh for a very brief period of only 31 days in 1984.
- In a more recent instance, Arvind Kejriwal of Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) functioned as CM of Delhi only for 49 days, after which he resigned over the non-passage of anti-graft legislation, the Jan Lokpal Bill.
- The only female Chief Minister to lead her government for three consecutive terms in any state of independent India is Sheila Dikshit of the INC. Dikshit remained the CM of Delhi for a continuous term from 1998 to 2013.
- The only Chief Minister of a state in India to have been blamed for not taking decisive action against communal riots in the country is Narendra Modi, the former Chief Minister of Gujarat and the incumbent Prime Minister of India. Though, he was given a clean chit by the Special Investigative Team (SIT) in 2007.
- The first Chief Minister who died in office was C N Annadurai from Tamil Nadu.
- Janaki Ramachandran of AIADMK is the only woman Chief Minister to have remained in office for a mere term of 23 days.
- J Jayalalitha of the AIADMK, the former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, was a popular actress in the film industry, before she joined politics.
- Mamata Banerjee, the present CM of West Bengal and the TMC supremo, is the only leader who could oust the 34 years of Left Front rule in the state. She remains, to this day, one of the consistent critics of the Left Front.
- The first Muslim woman to become the Chief Minister of any state in India is Syeda Anwara Taimur. A Congress leader, she remained CM of the north-eastern state of Assam, from December 1980 to June 1981.
|S no.||Name of State||Name of Chief Minister|
|1||Gujarat||Smt. Anandiben Patel|
|2||Rajasthan||Smt. Vasundhara Scindia Raje|
|3||West Bengal||Km. Mamata Banerjee|
Non BJP and Congress Chief Ministers in India
|S no.||Name of State||Name of Chief Minister|
|1||Andhra Pradesh||Chandrababu Naidu|
|4||Jammu and Kashmir||Mufti Mohammad Sayeed|
|9||Punjab||Parkash Singh Badal|
|10||Sikkim||Pawan Kumar Chamling|
|12||Telangana||K. Chandrasekhar Rao|
|14||Uttar Pradesh||Akhilesh Yadav|
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Last Updated on January 19, 2016