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Political Parties formed since Independence in India

Posted by Admin on August 13, 2014 | Comment

The post-independence era has witnessed proliferation of political parties at both national and regional level. New ideologies caught public imagination and new ideologues emerged with their distinct philosophies. While some parties were founded on certain set of principles, the internal differences prompted the birth of breakaway factions. While some parties like the Indian National Congress (INC) came into existence in the pre-independence era (1885), it’s interesting to know how some of the important political parties emerged after independence.

Political Parties formed since Independence

Communist Party of India – Marxist (CPI-M)

CPI-M is a breakaway faction of the Communist Party of India (which was founded in late 1925 in Kanpur, now in Uttar Pradesh. CPI-M was formed in 1964 and its presence is gradually getting restricted to a handful of states such as Kerala, West Bengal and Tripura. The party is known for its “anti-globalisation and anti-capitalism” stance.

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)

Founded in 1980, BJP is one of two major political parties in India, along with the INC. Following the 2014 general elections, BJP has become India’s largest political party when it comes to representation in Lok Sabha. As of 2014, it is also the second largest party in the state Assemblies. Its ideology is somewhat in sync with Hindu right wing group – Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Time and again, the party has taken a stand on Hindu nationalism and reflected its commitment to “integral humanism” – an ideology which was first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965.

Bahujan Samaj Party

Headquartered in Uttar Pradesh. BSP claims to be inspired by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s philosophy. The idea behind the formation of BSP was to represent ‘Bahujans’ (referring mainly to people from backward classes and minority groups). The party was founded by Kanshi Ram in 1984. He was a much revered Dalit leader. Since 2003, the party has been led by Mayawati. In the 2014 general elections, BSP was the third most-voted party. However, it couldn’t garner any seat in the Lok Sabha.

Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)

The NCP has its stronghold primarily in Maharashtra and Kerala. The party was formed by the three ex-Congressmen Sharad Pawar, P. A. Sangma, and Tariq Anwar following their expulsion from the Congress Party. They had questioned the right of Sonia Gandhi to lead the party, as she was of Italian origin. NCP came into existence in 1999. Nationalist Youth Congress is the youth wing of NCP.

Regional Political Parties Formed Since Independence

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)

A Dravidian political party in Tamil Nadu, DMK was founded by C. N. Annadurai in 1949. DMK has its presence in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. It was formed after a split within Dravidar Kazhagam party, which used to be led by Periyar.  Muthuvel Karunanidhi has been heading the party since 1969. He has served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on five separate occasions. Serving as the leader of the DMK since the death of Annadurai, in 1969, his political career spans more than 60 years.

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)

AIADMK is a Dravidian party founded by M.G. Ramachandran in 1972. The party is a breakaway faction of DMK. The current chief minister of Tamil Nadu, J. Jayalalitha has been leading the party since 1989. AIADMK is presently the ruling party in Tamil Nadu and also the third largest party in the Lok Sabha.

Telugu Desam Party (TDP)

TDP’s presence can be felt in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The party was founded by Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (NTR) in 1982.  It has been led by Chandrababu Naidu since 1995. He is the current Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh as the TDP won 104 out of 175 seats in the 2014 general elections. In Telangana, TDP couldn’t make much impact with only one seat coming their way.

Shiv Sena

Shiv Sena is a Hindu nationalist political party founded by Bal Thackeray in 1966. The demand for “preferential treatment” of Maharashtrians led to the establishment of this political entity. Shiv Sena is currently headed by Uddhav Thackeray. The party had allied with BJP in the past and it had been the member of NDA government from 1998 to 2004. It has often been accused of inciting communal violence across the state.

Asom Gana Parishad (AGP)

AGP is a political party based in Assam. The party was founded in 1985 after years of agitation against illegal infiltration from Bangladesh into Assam. Following the historic Assam Accord of 1985, AGP formed the government in Assam with Prafulla Kumar Mahanta becoming the youngest chief minister of the country. AGP had also formed government from 1996 to 2001.

Samajwadi Party (SP)

The party is based in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The party was founded in 1992 after it broke away from the Janata Dal. Samajwadi party claims to be a “democratic socialist party.” Currently, the party is led by Akhilesh Yadav, the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. SP is the third-largest party in Parliament.

Biju Janata Dal (BJD)

It’s a state political party of Odisha founded by Naveen Patnaik, the son of legendary Biju Patnaik, in 1997. He was earlier a member of Janata Dal, but later decided to part ways. Also, BJD was earlier partner of NDA.

Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD)

RJD is the state political party of Bihar, which was founded by Lalu Prasad Yadav in 1997. After Lalu Prasad Yadav was expelled from the Janata Dal on charges of corruption, he independently formed RJD. Although it got the status of a national party in 2008, it was derecognised in 2010.

All India Trinamool Congress (TMC)

TMC is a ruling political party in West Bengal and a breakaway faction of the Indian National Congress. It was founded in 1998 by the current Chief Minister of West Bengal Mamata Banerjee. Presently, it’s the fourth largest party in the Lok Sabha. TMC withdrew support to the UPA after the latter failed to meet the party’s demands.

Mizo National Front (MNF)

The regional political party in Mizoram emerged out of the Mizo National Famine Front. The party was founded by Pu Laldenga in 1961 to protest inaction of the Indian government towards the famine situation in Mizo-dominated regions of Assam. After years of anti-establishment stand, MNF signed the peace accord with the central government in 1986. The party had twice formed government in Mizoram.

Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS)

TRS is a political party in the newly formed state of Telangana and also the ruling party.  K. Chandrashekar Rao (KCR) founded TRS in 2001 after he broke away from Chandrababu Naidu’s Telugu Desam Party due to ideological differences.

Lok Janshakti Party (LJNSP)

This political party in Bihar was formed in 2000 when Ram Vilas Paswan split from Janata Dal (United). It receives significant support of the people from the Dalit community and the ones from the backward classes. Presently, the party is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA).

Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party (PDP)

People’s Democratic Party (PDP) was founded in 1999 by the ex-Union Home Minister, Mufti Mohammed Sayeed. He remains the chief patron of the party till today. PDP ruled Jammu and Kashmir in coalition with INC after it won the October 2002 Assembly elections. The party was also a member of the UPA government until the 2009 elections. PDP is headed by Ms Mehbooba Mufti. The party adheres to its ideology of self-rule.

Janata Dal United (JDU)

JDU has significant presence in Bihar and Jharkhand. The party was a direct result of a merger of the Sharad Yadav-led Janata Dal, the Lokshakti Party and the Samata Party in 2003. George Fernandes is the party mentor for JDU.

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS)

After Raj Thackeray parted ways with Shiv Sena due to differences with Uddhav Thackeray, he founded the MNS in 2006. It’s often said that the growth of MNS created a dent in Bal Thackeray’s political clout and the power of the Thackeray family got divided.

YSR Congress Party

YSR Congress Party can be considered a breakaway faction of INC. Founded in 2009, this regional political party in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana is headed by Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy, the son of former Andhra Pradesh chief minister Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy. Both YSR and Jagan were the members of the INC.

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM)

This is Jharkhand’s state political party, which was founded in 1972. JMM also exerts influence in Odisha and West Bengal. Shibu Soren is the party president. The party fared poorly in the recently concluded general elections. It won just two out of 14 seats in Jharkhand with BJP winning the rest.

Aam Admi Party (AAP)

Aam Admi Party came into existence in 2012 when Arvind Kejriwal, one of the active members of India Against Corruption movement decided to join politics. Kejriwal differed with social activist Anna Hazare over the need to from a political entity and contest elections. AAP was accused of politicising the anti-corruption movement. After a spectacular win in the 2014 Delhi assembly elections, AAP formed the government in Delhi but soon Kejriwal resigned as CM. In less than two months, the party got mired in over-activism and failed to make any mark in the Lok Sabha elections.

PS: The recognition of BSP, CPI and NCP as national parties is under review by the Election Commission which has called a meeting of these parties to hear their stand on their threatened “national party” status following their poor performance in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections.