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Rape Laws in India
Rape Laws in India

India has reached an alarming point with regard to crime against women. It has to respond to the challenge, believe in the statistics, and prevent women from becoming victims of brutality and physical, sexual and psychological harm. Although we have become overly dependent on tougher laws and legal reforms, the attitude of the administration and common people remains a matter of concern. Rising Cases of Rape in India It’s appalling to see the crime report issued by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). According to the report, 93 women are raped in India every day. The more […]Read more

Juvenile Law in India
Juvenile Law in India

Treat the Cause and Not the Symptom. Indian government needs to wake up to this idea when it comes to dealing with juvenile delinquents.   Like many other legislations, Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act underwent several amendments. Lately, the law makers and civil society have called for amending this law to reduce the age of juvenile from 18 years to 16 years and ensure harsher punishments to adolescents involved in serious offences. India’s approach towards juvenile justice is quite in contrast with what other nations practise. Before we draw an analogy, it’s important to […]Read more

What is the Kyoto Protocol

  The fact that much of the global warming is ‘human-induced’ and it is the collective responsibility of the nations to mitigate its impact is reflected in the Kyoto Protocol – an international agreement established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). As per this protocol, every participating nation is given emission reduction target, which is internationally binding. History of Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997. It took four years to create a detailed framework of rules for the implementation of the Protocol. In 2001, the […]Read more

Article 19 of Indian Constitution

 Every citizen of India has the personal liberty and freedom to exercise his/her fundamental rights, as enshrined in the Constitution. Article 19 is one of the key Articles that guarantee freedom of speech and expression. Some of the landmark judgments in the history of India have been taken as per the provisions mentioned in Article 19. Concept and Purpose of Article 19 The primary purpose of Article 19 is to protect certain rights regarding freedom of speech. According to this Article, every citizen has the right to freedom of speech and expression; assemble peacefully (without arms); form […]Read more

Different Acts in Indian Constitution
Different Acts in Indian Constitution

Given the diversity of issues that India has been facing, it was important to formulate constitutional laws that would help the executive and the judiciary in tackling them. Different Acts were passed by Parliament not only to control crime but to enforce discipline in various sectors of our democratic society. While some Acts were given more teeth through a series of amendments, others continue to be marred due to poor or ineffective implementation. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act Among several constitutional protections and laws, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act is one that prohibits the […]Read more

Constitutional Bodies in India
The Constitutional bodies in India

The Constitutional bodies are mostly executive in nature, with the power of advising the government vested in them. Ensuring effective functioning of the government is the main objective behind the establishment of these bodies. While some are permanent agencies, there are a few ad hoc bodies as well, which are established for a fixed term. The constitutional bodies not only uphold the principles of the Constitution but also help government machinery to run smoothly.   The different  Constitutional bodies in India are :  Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) The UPSC is a central agency responsible for conducting […]Read more

Role of Political Parties in India before and after Independence
Role of Political Parties before and after partition

Contemporary Indian political history is categorised into pre-independence and post-independence era. There is a stark contrast in the way politics used to be played out during the freedom movement days and the shape it has taken after independence. In all these years, India polity has seen a drastic change. Role of National Political Parties Before Independence It’s fair to say that Indian National Congress dominated the political landscape of India during the pre-independence era. Ever since it was formed in 1885, the party dedicated itself towards strengthening the nationalist movement against the British rule. It set the […]Read more

Political Parties formed since Independence in India
Political Parties formed since Independence

The post-independence era has witnessed proliferation of political parties at both national and regional level. New ideologies caught public imagination and new ideologues emerged with their distinct philosophies. While some parties were founded on certain set of principles, the internal differences prompted the birth of breakaway factions. While some parties like the Indian National Congress (INC) came into existence in the pre-independence era (1885), it’s interesting to know how some of the important political parties emerged after independence. Communist Party of India – Marxist (CPI-M) CPI-M is a breakaway faction of the Communist Party of India (which […]Read more

National Symbols of India and Their Significance
National symbols of India and their significance

Every nation creates a distinct identity, an official identity which is unanimously accepted and followed. National symbols come in the form of anthems, emblem, flags, etc which carry deeper meanings. These symbols not only express values, history and the diversity of a nation, but also reflect individuality and uniqueness. List of National Symbols of India Let’s explore what the national symbols of India stand for. National Emblem of India The emblem of India is adapted from the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. The three Asiatic lions embedded in the emblem signify power, courage, and victory. The […]Read more

Present Eligibility criteria for National Awards
Present Eligibility criteria for National Awards in india

The culture of showering public recognitions to individual achievers gained momentum in the post-independence era, with Indian government considering newer categories and levels of awards for excellence displayed in several disciplines. Be it the civilian awards or the war-time gallantry awards, the stringent eligibility criteria for nominating and choosing the deserving winner endows every honour special or recipient with special significance. Find a list of different types of National awards meant for citizens of India along with their eligibility criteria :  Bharat Ratna Bharat Ratna (meaning ‘Jewel of India’) has the distinction of being the highest civilian […]Read more