India has seen a paradigm shift in the politics of India since the Independence of the nation in 1947. India has a parliamentary form of government, headed by the nominal executive head of the state, the president of India. The federal nature of the country governs India and its citizens. There are more than 2000 political parties registered with the Election Commission of India. About 97.50% of them are unrecognized. The top political parties in India are fewer. The Election Commission of India lists political parties as national parties and state parties. There are 7 national political parties in India.
The list of top 7 political parties in India is listed below:
- Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
- Indian National Congress (INC)
- Aam Aadmi Party (AAP)
- All India Trinamool Congress (AITC)
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
- Communist Party of India (CPI)
- National People’s Party (NPP)
The question is how these parties out of more than 2000 parties became the top political parties in India. Precisely, it is the greater vision and the impactful leadership that made the history of politics in India.
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) is a national political party of India which is founded in 1980. Syama Prasad Mookerjee formed Bharatiya Jana Sangh in 1951.After the emergency of 1975; the Bharatiya Jana Sangh was merged with other parties to form the Janata Party. Janata Party was dissolved in 1980 and thus formed the current ruling party the Bharatiya Janata Party. After the initial poor performance by BJP, it led to a new coalition National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Some of the notable BJP leaders are Atal Bihari Vajpayee, LK Advani, PM Narendra Modi, and Amit Shah.
Indian National Congress (INC)
Indian National Congress party was the single dominant party even before the independence of India. It was founded in 1885 with the support and guidance of Allan Octavian Hume, a British civil servant. The largest party of India under the leadership of Nehru governed the nation after partition. After the death of Nehru, the party was then led by Indira Gandhi; she became the prime minister of India in 1966. After her death, her son Rajiv Gandhi took the lead. Due to the unfortunate death of Rajiv Gandhi his wife Sonia Gandhi was elected as the chief of INC. It is now the largest opposition party.
Aam Aadmi Party (AAP)
Aam Aadmi Party was founded in 2012. The National Capital Territory (NCT) elected the AAP government twice to govern the capital city. The emergence of AAP changed the political atmosphere in Delhi, wiping out the Indian National Congress. Prominent leaders are Arvind Kejriwal, Manish Sisodia, Raghav Chadda.
All India Trinamool Congress (AITC)
All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) was founded in 1988 by Mamata Banerjee. It is popularly known as the Trinamool Congress (TMC) after defeating the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Mamata’s party gained confidence in 2011. In the state assembly elections of 2021, TMC defeated BJP in Bengal. After disassociating from INC, Mamata formed TMC. The North Eastern States like Tripura, Manipur, and Arunanchal Pradesh sees a strong presence of TMC. Prominent leaders of the top political party are Mamata Banerjee, Mahua Moitra, Abhishek Banerjee.
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
Nationalist Congress Party was founded on 25 May 1999. After isolating from INC Sharad Pawar, P.A. Sangma and Tariq Anwar formed the NCP. When the party was formed, Pawar became the chief and the other two members became the General Secretaries. NCP has a strong presence in the state of Maharashtra. Famous leaders from NCP are Sharad Pawar, Ajit Pawar, and Rajesh Tope.
Communist Party of India (CPI)
According to the Communist Party of India (CPI), it was founded on 26 December 1925. S.V. Ghate was the first General Secretary of CPI. CPI started functioning legally in 1942. It addresses the issues of the workers with the support of trade unions in the country. Prominent leaders are Binoy Viswam, Atul Kumar Anjaan, Sudhakar Reddy.
National People’s Party (NPP)
After P A Sangma was expelled from NCP he founded NPP. It was recently recognized as a national party on 07 June 2019. It is the first party from North-eastern India that became a national political party. It has a strong presence in Meghalaya. Famous leaders are Conrad Sangma and Agatha Sangma.