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Constitutional Framework for Political System in India
Indian democracy : constitutional foundations

Indian polity is guided by the principles laid down in the Constitution, which defines every aspect of Indian political system including its basic objectives. The rules and procedure embedded in the Constitution serve as the basic edifice upon which rests the governance of the country. Besides elucidating the structure and functioning of governments at the Central, state and local levels, it also acts as a reference document for dealing with several other aspects of politics. Constitutional Values Guiding Indian Politics Indian Constitution may have detailed provisions on fundamental rights, duties and directive principles of state policy, but [...]Read more

The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958
The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act

States such as Manipur and Jammu and Kashmir have for long been demanding the withdrawal of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958. Only recently, the issue of revocation of the Act came in the way of a likely alliance between the Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party and the Bharatiya Janata Party to form the government in Jammu and Kashmir. What compounded the matter was the Army’s reported apprehension over any move to dilute the AFSPA in the state and the BJP’s concerns that any such move might lead to “lowering of the morale of forces [...]Read more

Media Rights During Polling Day in India
Media Rights During Polling Day in India

Media houses and journalists contribute towards the participation of voters in democratic debate, particularly by guaranteeing that issues of public interest come to the fore. As guardians of democracy, journalists play a key role in guaranteeing the legitimacy and therefore the acceptance of election results, particularly in countries witnessing a transition to democracy or rising from political crisis. To carry out their task, journalists must have rights. They even have responsibilities. The right to provide information, without being pressured or threatened, brings with it the duty to provide voters with factually correct information. This is complex work, [...]Read more

India-US Hotline: First one for Modi
What is India-US Hotline for

In a significant step towards taking bilateral relations to a new level, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and US President Barack Obama agreed to set up a hotline between the top leaders for the first time. A hotline is supposedly used in the most crucial moments in international relations. According to Modi, this initiative would give India-US partnership “a new thrust and sustained attention.” Both Obama and Modi agreed that India and the US must have regular summits at greater frequency.  Although India maintains several hotlines with China and Pakistan at the military level, it is the [...]Read more

Article 30 of the Indian Constitution – Concept and relevance
Article 30 of the Indian Constitution

Protection of rights of the religious and ethnic minorities is the bedrock of India’s secular values. With a legacy of bringing all religions under its fold, India has always advocated the principle of equality. The Article 30 of Indian Constitution is one of the many provisions that ensures preservation of minority rights. Concept of Article 30  Article 30 is classified under Part III of the Indian Constitution that elucidates all the Fundamental Rights guaranteed to the citizens of India irrespective of their religion, caste and sex. Article 30 upholds the right of the minorities “to establish and [...]Read more

Article 20 of the Indian Constitution
Article 20 of the Indian Constitution

The Article 20 is one of the pillars of fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution of India. It mainly deals with protection of certain rights in case of conviction for offences. When an individual as well as corporations are accused of crimes, the provisions of Article 20 safeguard their rights. The striking feature of the Article 20 is that it can’t be suspended during an emergency period. The Article has set certain limitations on the legislative powers of the Union and State legislatures.  Ex Post Facto Legislation  The clause (1) of Article 20 protects individuals against ex [...]Read more

Powers of Lieutenant Governor in India
Powers of Lieutenant Governor in India

The Lieutenant Governor plays a significant constitutional role. The Indian Constitution has bestowed similar powers and functions on the Governors and Lt. Governors as enjoyed by the President of India. In India, the rank of Lt. Governor is present in the Union Territories (UTs) of Delhi (which is a state too), Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry. Role and Functions of Lieutenant Governor Like Governor, Lt. Governor acts as the titular head of the UT whereas the real power is exercised by the chief minister (CM) and his council of ministers. In the Articles 239 and 239AA [...]Read more

Criteria for Disqualification of MLAs in India
Criteria for Disqualification of MLAs in India

The criteria for disqualifications from membership of a state legislature are mentioned in the Article 191 of the Constitution of India. This Article is similar to the disqualification laid down in the Article 102 relating to the membership of both the houses of Parliament. The Constitution makes it abundantly clear that the Parliament has to make one law for a person to be disqualified for being elected and for being a Member of either House of Parliament or Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of any state. Under Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution of India, the [...]Read more

Provisions of Anti-Defection Law in India
Provisions of Anti-Defection Law in India

The Anti-Defection Law was enacted through the 52nd Amendment in 1985 and enshrined in the Tenth Schedule. This Act lays down the provisions for disqualification of elected members on the grounds of defection to a different political party. The law was enacted at the initiative of the Rajiv Gandhi-led government that came to power with a thumping majority in the wake of the assassination of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Why is Anti Defection Law needed? The Rajiv Gandhi government was spurred to introduce this law as several defections were witnessed in the eighties. The Amendment [...]Read more

Article 22 of Indian Constitution
Article 22 of the Constitution of India

Article 22 is one of the groups of Articles in Part III (Fundamental Rights) of the Constitution of India, which have been collected together under the sub-heading Right to Freedom. The subject-matter of the Article is personal liberty. This Article proceeds to guarantee certain fundamental rights to every arrested person. These rights being guaranteed by the Constitution are of a higher status than rights which are merely conferred by the ordinary law and have no such constitutional guarantee. In fact, Article 22 did not exist in the Draft Constitution. It was added towards the end of the [...]Read more

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