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Powers of Lieutenant Governor in India
Powers of Lieutenant Governor in India

The Lieutenant Governor plays a significant constitutional role. The Indian Constitution has bestowed similar powers and functions on the Governors and Lt. Governors as enjoyed by the President of India. In India, the rank of Lt. Governor is present in the Union Territories (UTs) of Delhi (which is a state too), Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry. Role and Functions of Lieutenant Governor Like Governor, Lt. Governor acts as the titular head of the UT whereas the real power is exercised by the chief minister (CM) and his council of ministers. In the Articles 239 and 239AA [...]Read more

Criteria for Disqualification of MLAs in India
Criteria for Disqualification of MLAs in India

The criteria for disqualifications from membership of a state legislature are mentioned in the Article 191 of the Constitution of India. This Article is similar to the disqualification laid down in the Article 102 relating to the membership of both the houses of Parliament. The Constitution makes it abundantly clear that the Parliament has to make one law for a person to be disqualified for being elected and for being a Member of either House of Parliament or Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of any state. Under Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution of India, the [...]Read more

Provisions of Anti-Defection Law in India
Provisions of Anti-Defection Law in India

The Anti-Defection Law was enacted through the 52nd Amendment in 1985 and enshrined in the Tenth Schedule. This Act lays down the provisions for disqualification of elected members on the grounds of defection to a different political party. The law was enacted at the initiative of the Rajiv Gandhi-led government that came to power with a thumping majority in the wake of the assassination of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Why is Anti Defection Law needed? The Rajiv Gandhi government was spurred to introduce this law as several defections were witnessed in the eighties. The Amendment [...]Read more

Article 22 of Indian Constitution
Article 22 of the Constitution of India

Article 22 is one of the groups of Articles in Part III (Fundamental Rights) of the Constitution of India, which have been collected together under the sub-heading Right to Freedom. The subject-matter of the Article is personal liberty. This Article proceeds to guarantee certain fundamental rights to every arrested person. These rights being guaranteed by the Constitution are of a higher status than rights which are merely conferred by the ordinary law and have no such constitutional guarantee. In fact, Article 22 did not exist in the Draft Constitution. It was added towards the end of the [...]Read more

Article 31 of the Constitution of India
Article 31 of the Constitution of India

Article 31 of the Constitution not only guarantees the right of private ownership but also the right to enjoy and dispose of property free from restrictions other than reasonable restriction. The article states that no person shall be deprived of his/her property, except by authority of law. It is also mentioned that compensation would be paid to a person whose property has been taken for public purposes. Meaning of Article 31 Unlike other fundamental rights, the scope of right to property is continuously diminished by curtailing it through constitutional amendments. Many times legal proceedings have arisen within [...]Read more

Cantonment Board Elections in India
Cantonment Board Elections in India

All civic bodies have clearly demarcated areas for administration and their own respective geographical areas under them. Similarly, there is certain geographical region – mostly having military institutions, referred to as cantonment area – where private properties are also situated – which is administered by a separate body called Cantonment Board, which is under the control of Ministry of Defence. For this Board, representatives are elected from among the residents of the cantonment area. Cantonments were originally quarters assigned for lodging troops, a permanent military station created by the British Government in India for the location of military [...]Read more

Procedure of Filing Nomination for Election
Procedure of Filing Nomination for Election

Election in India is the largest exercise of its kind in the democratic world. In the election process, the filing of nomination papers by candidates is a very important task. Under Section 14/15 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, the filing of nomination starts on the date of notification by the President/Governor. The Returning Officer (RO) issues public notice of election (under Section 31) in Form -1 (appended to CE Rules, 61). The public notice has to be under the signature of the RO only as no other authority can issue this public notice. Who [...]Read more

Presentation of Union Budget in Lok Sabha
Presentation of Union Budget in Lok Sabha

The Union Budget or the annual budget of India is regarded as the Annual Financial Statement, which is presented before the Parliament every year. The budget, which is presented by the Finance Minister, goes through a layered process before it is finally passed by the House and brought into effect on 1 April. Why is the Union Budget tabled on the last working day of February? Although the budget is presented on the day announced by the President, it is generally on the last working day of February that the finance minister has to submit the budget [...]Read more

Difference between Approved, Regularised and Unapproved colonies
Difference between Approved, Regularised and Unapproved colonies

Unauthorised or unapproved colonies are symptomatic of haphazard, unplanned growth in urban areas. Hundreds of residential/industrial colonies come up without the authorisation of authorities. As unapproved or unauthorised colonies are huge vote banks, they are ultimately able to undergo regularisation and avail basic civic amenities like water supply, sewerage, amongst others. What sets unapproved colonies apart from approved colonies The unapproved/unauthorised colonies are not a part of master plan regulations. These colonies accommodate the underprivileged urban middle class people and are similar to slums where the urban poor generally reside. The buying and selling in the unauthorised [...]Read more

Roles of Councillors, MLAs and MPs in India
Roles of Councillors, MLAs and MPs in India

The citizens of India have their representatives at all three levels of governance – local, state and national. Be it councillors, MLAs or MPs, these directly elected representatives are obliged to work towards the development of people in every nook and corner of the country. Their roles and responsibilities are diverse, to say the least. Role of a Councillor The municipal councillors are considered the representatives of people at grassroots level. The very purpose of their existence is to work towards the welfare and interests of the municipality they are representing. It is fair to assume that [...]Read more

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